Vitamin B 12
Vitamin B12, vitamin B12 or vitamin B-12, also called cobalamin, is a water soluble vitamin with a keyrole in the normal functioning of the brain and nervous system, and for the formation of blood.
Guarana ( /??w?r??n??/, from the Portuguese [?wa???na], Paullinia cupana, syn. P. crysan, P. sorbilis) is a climbing plant in the maple family, Sapindaceae, native to the Amazon basin and especially common in Brazil. Guarana features large leaves and clusters of \ flowers, and is best known for its fruit, which is about the size of a coffee bean. As a dietary supplement, guarana is an effective stimulant: it contains about twice the caffeine found in coffee beans (about 2–4.5% caffeine in guarana seeds compared to 1– 2% for coffee beans).
Dimethylaminoethanol, also known as DMAE or dimethylethanolamine, is an organic compound. Short-term studies have shown an increase in vigilance and alertness with a positive influence on mood following administration of DMAE, vitamins, and minerals. Research for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been promising, though inconclusive. Long-term studies are equivocal.
Acetyl-L-carnitine or ALCAR, is an acetylated form of L-carnitine. It is a dietary supplement and naturally occurs in plants. ALCAR has the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier and get to the brain blood circulation, where it acts as a powerful antioxidant, which helps in prevention of the brain cells’ deterioration. Its supplementation has been shown to be neuro-protective in instances of cerebral ischemia in rats and may be useful in treating peripheral nerve injury. It may have some neuroprotective benefit in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, but further research is required.
It is listed as a nootropic, a drug that enhances cognitive ability. In India, this plant has also been used traditionally to consecrate newborn babies in the belief that it will open the gateway of intelligence. Laboratory studies on rats indicate that extracts of the plant improve memory capacity and motor learning ability. Recent studies suggest bacopa may improve intellectual activity.
Peppermint (Mentha × piperita, also known as M. balsamea Willd.) is a hybrid mint, a cross between the watermint (Mentha aquatica) and spearmint (Mentha spicata). According to the international journal of neuroscience, the aroma of peppermint has been found to enhance memory. Some studies suggested that it can be administered by instructors to their students before examinations, to aid recall.
Tulsi (Holy Basil) Extract
Ocimum tenuiflorum (also tulsi, tulas?, or Holy Basil) is an aromatic plant which is widely known across South Asia as a medicinal plant and an herbal tea, commonly used in Ayurveda. Tulsi is considered to be an adaptogen, balancing different processes in the body, and helpful for adapting to stress.Tulsi is regarded in Ayurveda as a kind of “elixir of life” and believed to promote longevity.
Green Tea Extract
Green tea is made solely with the leaves of Camellia sinensis. Over the last few decades green tea has been subjected to many scientific and medical studies to determine the extent of its long-purported health benefits, with some evidence suggesting that regular green tea drinkers have lower chances of heart disease and of developing certain types of cancer.Although green tea does not raise the metabolic rate enough to produce immediate weight loss, a green tea extract containing polyphenols and caffeine has been shown to induce thermogenesis and stimulate fat oxidation, boosting the metabolic rate 4% without increasing the heart rate.
Gingko Biloba Extract
Ginkgo is believed to have nootropic properties, and is mainly used as memory and concentration enhancer. However, studies differ about its efficacy. The largest and longest independent clinical trial to assess Ginkgo biloba’s ability to prevent memory loss has found that the supplement alone does not prevent or delay dementia or Alzheimer’s disease. According to some studies, Ginkgo can significantly improve attention in healthy individuals. In one such study, the effect was almost immediate and reaches its peak in 2.5 hours after the intake. One study suggests that Ginkgo’s effect on cognition may be attributable to its inhibitory effect on norepinephrine reuptake.
Rhodiola rosea may be effective for improving mood and alleviating depression. Pilot studies on human subjects showed that it improves physical and mental performance, and may reduce fatigue. Rhodiola rosea’s effects are potentially mediated by changes in serotonin and dopamine levels due tomonoamine oxidase inhibition and its influence on opioid peptides such as beta-endorphin, although these specific neuro-chemical mechanisms have not been clearly documented with scientific studies. Rhodiola is included among a class of plant derivatives called adaptogens which differ from chemical stimulants, such as nicotine, and do not have the same physiological effects.
The benefits of PS in cognitive enhancement applications is currently under study. First pilot studies indicate that PS supplementation might be beneficial for children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.[9. FDA has given "qualified health claim" status to phosphatidylserine, stating that "Consumption of phosphatidylserine may reduce the risk of dementia in the elderly" and "Consumption of phosphatidylserine may reduce the risk of cognitive dysfunction in the elderly".
Tyrosine is one of the 20 amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins. Tyrosine is a precursor to neurotransmitters and increases plasma neurotransmitter levels (particularly dopamine and norepinephrine) Improvements in cognitive and physical performance seen in human trials
Black Tea Extract
Black tea is a variety of tea that is more oxidized than the oolong, green, and white varieties. All four varieties are made from leaves of Camellia sinensis. Black tea is generally stronger in flavor and contains more caffeine than the less oxidized teas.
L-Alpha Glycerylphosphorylcholine (Alpha GPC, choline alfoscerate) is a natural choline compound found in the brain and in milk. It is also a parasympathomimetic acetylcholineprecursor which may have potential for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease and is used as anootropic dietary supplement to enhance memory and cognition.
Alpha GPC rapidly delivers choline to the brain across the blood-brain barrier and is a biosynthetic precursor of the acetylcholine neurotransmitter. Alpha GPC is derived from highly purified soy lecithin.
Citicoline (INN), also known as cytidine diphosphate-choline (CDP-Choline) & cytidine 5?-diphosphocholine is a psychostimulant/nootropic. It is an intermediate in the generation ofphosphatidylcholine from choline. Sold in over 70 countries under a variety of brand names: Ceraxon, Cognizin, NeurAxon, Somazina etc.
Huperzine A is a naturally occurring sesquiterpene alkaloid compound found in the plant firmoss Huperzia serrata.In the US, Huperzine A is sold as a dietary supplement for memory support. The botanical has been used in China for centuries for the treatment of swelling, fever and blood disorders. Clinical trials in China have shown it to be effective in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease and enhancing memory in students.
Vinpocetine (brand names: Cavinton, Intelectol; chemical name: ethyl apovincaminate) is  an extract from the periwinkle (plant) Vinca minor. Vinpocetine is widely marketed as a supplement for vasodilation and as a nootropic for the improvement of memory. In other words, Vinpocetine may help support brain functions such as concentration and memory by activating cerebral metabolism. Vinpocetine has been identified as a potent anti-inflammatory agent that might have a potential role in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease.